Heat Distribution in High Power Yb Doped Fiber Laser by Considering Photo-darkening Effect

Document Type : Research Article

Author

Photonic and Quantum Technology Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, (NSTRI), North Kargar Avenue, Tehran P.O. Box 14399-51113,

Abstract

Several effects, such as optical nonlinear and thermal effects can change and reduce the output power of high-power Fiber Laser. In this paper, the photodarkening effect, as an additional loss factor in the high-power Fiber Laser s, was added in the rate equations, and the pump power variation relation was rewritten under the new conditions. By considering the complete form of the heat transfer function, including conductive and radiative heat transfer, the generated heat in the double clad Fiber Laser with the bidirectional pump scheme for different cavity geometry was determined. In this paper, the photodarkening loss is added to the rate equations as power decreasing factor, which is suggested as a stretched exponential function. The effects of core radius, the first clad size, input power, output reflectors coefficient, and laser cavity length in the heat generation were calculated. The contribution of each heat production factor including Quantum Defect, photodarkening, and propagation loss were also determined in heat generation. It was shown that the share of photodarkening heat caused from pump power and propagation loss affected from pump power in heat generation in the Double clad Fiber Laser is negligible. However, the photodarkening heat affected from signal power is the main factor in heat generation at the central points of Fiber Laser.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] H. W. Etzel, H. W. Candy, and R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium activated silicate glass,” Appl. Opt., Vol. 1, (1962) p. 534.
[2] H. M. Pask, Robert, J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Laser s: Versatile Sources for the 1-1.2 pm Region", IEEE J. selected top. In quant. Electron., Vol. 1, (1995) 2-13.
[3] J. Oewiderski, A. Zajac, M. Skórczakowski, Z. Jankiewicz, and P. Konieczny, “Rare-earth-doped high-power Fiber Laser s generating in near infrared range”, Opto-Electronics Review 12(2) (2004)169-173.
[4] A. V. Smith, and J. J. Smith, “Mode Instability thresholds for Tm-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 790 nm”, Opt. express. Vol. 24, (2016) 975-992.
[5] C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber”, laser systems”, Opt. Express, Vol. 20, (2011) 440–451.
[6] C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Derivation of Raman treshold formulas for CW double-clad fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 17 (2009) 8476–8490, 2009.
[7] S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers”, Laser & Photon. Rev. 2, (2008) 429–448.
[8] N. G. R. Broderick, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, R. A. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, “Large Mode Area Fibers for High Power Applications”, Optical Fiber Technol., 5 (1999) 185-196.
[9] S. Saitoh, K. Saitoh, M. Kashiwagi, S. Matsuo,and L. Dong, “Design Optimization of Large-Mode-Area All-Solid Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Laser Applications”, J. Lightwave Technol., 32, (2014) 440- 449.
[10] K. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, G. Chen, Q. Peng, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “High power single-mode Large-Mode-Area photonic crystal Fiber Laser with improved Fabry-Perot cavity”, Chinese Optics Letters, 4, (2006) 522-524.
[11] G. P. Agrawal, “Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics”, Second edition, Academic Press, printed in the United States of America, Copyright c 2008.
[12] Z. Li, Z. Huang, X. Xiang, X. Liang, H. Lin, S. Xu, Z. Yang, J. Wang, and F. Jing, “Experimental demonstration of transverse Mode Instability enhancement by a counter-pumped scheme in a 2 kW all-fiberized laser”, Photonics Research, 5, (2017) 77-81.
[13] K. H. Lee, K. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. H. Cha, G. Lim, H. Park, H. Cho, and D. Y. Jeong, “Transverse Mode Instability induced by Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in a pulsed single-frequency large-core fiber amplifier”, App. Opt., 54 (2015) 189-194.
[14] I.O. Zolotovskii, D.A. Korobko, V.A. Lapin, P.P. Mironov, D.I. Sementsov, A.A. Fotiadi, M.S. Yavtushenko, “Generation of subpicosecond pulses due to the development of modulation instability of whispering-gallery-mode wave packets in an optical waveguide with a travelling refractive-index wave”, Quant. Electron. 48 (2018) 818 – 822.
[15] R. Tao, H. Xiao, H. Zhang, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “Dynamic characteristics of Stimulated Raman Scattering in high power fiber amplifiers in the presence of mode instabilities”, Opt. Express., 26 (2018) 25095-25110.
[16] J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, L. Goldberg, “Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier”, Opt. Lett., Vol. 25,(2000), 442-444.
[17] M. Karimi, “Theoretical Study of the Thermal Distribution in Yb-Doped Double-Clad Fiber Laser by Considering Different Heat Sources”, Progress in Electromagnetics Research C, 88, (2018) 59–76.
[18] C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann1, “Simplified modelling the Mode Instability threshold of high-power fiber amplifiers in the presence of photodarkening”, Opt. Express., 23, (2015) 20203- 20218.
[19] B. Ward, “Theory and modeling of photodarkening induced quasi static degradation in fiber amplifiers”, Opt. Express., 24, (2016) 3488-3501.
[20] C. Ye, L. Petit, J. J. Koponen, I-N. Hu, and A. Galvanauskas, “Short-Term and Long-Term Stability in Ytterbium-Doped High-Power Fiber Laser s and Amplifiers”, ieee. j. sel. top. quantum. electron., 20, (2014) 0903512.
[21] M. Engholm, M. Tuggle, C. Kucera, T. Hawkins, P. Dragic, and J. Ballato, “On the origin of photodarkening resistance in Yb-doped silica fibers with high aluminum concentration”, Opt. Materials Express, 11, (2021) 115-125.
[22] H. Z. Li, L. Zhang, R. Sidharthan, Daryl Ho, X. Wu, N. Venkatram, H. D. Sun, T. Y. Huang, S. Yoo, “Pump Wavelength Dependence of Photodarkening in Yb-doped Fibers”, J. Lightwave Technol., 35, (2017) 2535 – 2540.
[23] R. Cao, X. Lin, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Xing, H. Li, L. Yang, G. Chen, and J. Li, “532 nm pump induced photo-darkening inhibition and Photo-Bleaching in high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers”, Opt. Express, 27, (2019), 26523-26531.
[24] R. Cao, G. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, B. Dai, L. Yang, AND J. Li, “Effective suppression of the photodarkening effect in high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers by H2 loading”, Photonics Research, Vol. 8, pp. (2020), 288-295.
[25] R. Peretti, C. Gonnet, A. Marie Jurdyc, “A new vision of photodarkening in yb3+-doped fibers”, Optical Components and Materials IX, Proc. of SPIE, 8257, (2012), 825705.
[26] R. Peretti, C. Gonnet, and A. Marie Jurdyc, “Revisiting literature observations on photodarkening in Yb3+doped fiber considering the possible presence of Tm impurities”, App. Phys., 112, (2012), 093511.
[27] S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-doped alumino-phospho-silicate fiber with high stability,” IEEE Photon. J. 10, (2018) P. 1503408.
[28] R. Sidharthan1, H. Li, K. J. Lim, S. H. Lim, Y. M. Seng1, S. L. Chua and S. Yoo, “Photo darkening suppression in highly Yb-doped Aluminophosphosilicate fiber by addition of Cerium”, IEEE. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO EUROPE), 17, October (2019), 23-27.
[29] R. Cao, G. Chen, J. Li, “Eliminating photodarkening effect by H2-loading in high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers”, IEEE. Conference: CLEO: Science and Innovations, 2020.
[30] J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, “Effect of heat and H2 gas on the photo-darkening of Yb+3 fibers”, IEEE. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, INSPEC Accession Number, (2006) P. 10363283.
[31] M. S. Kuznetsov, O. L. Antipov, A. A. Fotiadi, and P. Mégret, “Electronic and thermal refractive index changes in Ytterbium-doped fiber Amplifiers”, Opt. Express., 21, (2013) 22374- 22388.
[32] S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boyland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, “Photodarkening in Yb-doped
aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488 nm irradiation”, Opt. Let., 32 (2007) 16261628.
[33] J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. A. V. Kliner, J. P. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, Photodarkening rate in Yb-doped silica fibers”, App. Opt. 47 (2008) 1247-1256.
[34] J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. T. Tammela, H. Po, “Photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica fibers”, proceedings of SPIE Security & Defense Europe ’05 Symposium, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.2005.
[35] F. Mady, M. Benabdesselam, Y. Mebrouk and B. Dussardier, “Radiation effects in ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers: traps and color centers related to the radiation-induced optical losses”, RADECS 2010 Proceedings – Paper LN2,
[36] M. Engholm, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, and L. Norin, “Improved photodarkening resistivity in ytterbium-doped Fiber Laser s by cerium codoping”, Opt. Lett., 34, (2009) 1285-1287.
[37] C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert, “Thermal analysis of Yb-doped high-power fiber amplifiers with Al:P co-doped cores”, Opt. Express., 16, (2018) 15540-15545.
[38] H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, D. Tregoat, A. Monteville, and T. Robin, “Photobleaching of photodarkening in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate fibers with 633 nm irradiation”, Opt. Mat. Express., 2, (2012) 1286-1291.
[39] L. Xiao, P. Yan, M. Gong, W. Wei, P. Ou, “An approximate analytic solution of strongly pumped Yb-doped double-clad Fiber Laser s without neglecting the scattering loss”, Opt. commun. 230, (2004) 401-410.
[40] P. Leproux and S. F´evrier, “Modeling and Optimization of Double-Clad Fiber Amplifiers Using Chaotic Propagation of the Pump”, Optical Fiber Technol., 6, (2001) 324–339.
[41] D. Kouznetsov, and J. V. Moloney, “Highly Efficient, High-Gain, Short-Length, and Power-Scalable Incoherent Diode Slab-Pumped Fiber Amplifier/Laser”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron., 39, (2003) 1452-1461.
[42] M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, V. Reichel, J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers”, Opt. Express., 17 (2009) 12588-12593.
[43] P. Yan, X. Wang, Y. Huang, C. Fu, J. Sun, Q. Xiao, D. Li, and M. Gong, “Fiber core mode leakage induced by refractive index variation in high-power Fiber Laser”, Chin. Phys. B, 26, (2017) 034205.
[44] J. Li, K. Duan, Y. Wang, X. Cao, W. Zhao, Y. Guo, and X. Lin, “Theoretical analysis of the heat dissipation mechanism in Yb3+-doped double-clad Fiber Laser s”, J. Modern Optic. 55, (2008) 459–471.
[45] J. Li, Y. Chen, M. Chen, H. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Yang, Z. Dai, Y. Liu, “Theoretical analysis and heat dissipation of mid-infrared chalcogenide fiber Raman laser”, Opt. Commun., 284, (2011) 1278–1283.
[46] M. Sabaeian, H. Nadgaran, M. De Sario, L. Mescia, F. Prudenzano, “Thermal effects on double clad octagonal Yb:glass Fiber Laser”, Optical Materials, 31, (2009) 1300–1305.
[47] P. Yan, Anan Xu, and Mali Gong, “Numerical analysis of temperature distributions in Yb-doped double-clad Fiber Laser s with consideration of radiative heat transfer”, Opt. Engin. 45, (2006) 124201.
[48] S. Neumark, “Solution of Cubic and Quartic Equations”, Pergam on Press, Oxford London, First edition, 1965.
[49] D. Polyanin, A. V. Mainchirov, Handbook of mathematics for engineers and scientist, Chapman &Hall/CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Danvers, 2007.
[50] Z. Luo, C. Ye, G. Sun, Z. Cai, M. Si, Q. Li, “Simplified analytic solutions and a novel fast algorithm for Yb3+- doped double-clad Fiber Laser s”, Opt. Commun., 277, (2007) 118–124.
[51] F. Brunet, Y. Taillon, P. Galarneau, and S. LaRochelle, “Practical Design of Double-Clad Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Using Giles Parameters”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron., 40, (2004) 1294-1300.
[52] I. Kelson and A. Hardy, "Optimization of Strongly Pumped Fiber Laser s", J. of Ligthwave Technol. 17 (1999) 891-897.
[53] S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, "Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation", Optics Express, 19, (2011), 19340-19345.
[54] Y. Peng, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Temperature distributions and thermal deformations of mirror substrates in laser resonators”, App. Opt. Vol. 40, (2001) 4824-4830.
 
[55] Y. Lv, S. Liu, “Heat dissipation model and temperature distribution of Yb-doped double clad fiber in the composite system”, Opt. Fiber Technol., Vol. 58, (2020) 102269.
[56] Esmaeil Mobini, Mostafa Peysokhan, Behnam Abaie, and Arash Mafi, “hermal modeling, heat mitigation, and radiative cooling for double-clad fiber amplifiers”, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Vol. 35, (2018) 2484-2493
[57] P. LiC. ZhuMeng Chen, S. ZouH. Zhao, D. Jiang, G. Li, M. Chen, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of thermal effects in a high power Yb3+-doped double-clad Fiber Laser”, Optics and Laser Technology, (2007) 119477463.
[58] Y. Wang, C. Q. Xu; H. Po, “Thermal effects in kilowatt Fiber Laser s”, IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 16, pp. 63 – 65, 2004.