Strength-Flow Parameters of Loose Silty Sands From Piezocone Tests

Document Type : Research Article



Piezocone penetration tests with dissipation phases are particularly useful for geotechnical site characterization. They also provide three independent readings with depth from a single sounding as well as time-rate information. In past investigations, only silty sands with specific silt content have been tested and complete sets of tests have not been conducted to evaluate the influence of different silt contents on CPTU results. In the present research, the complimentary CPTU tests with pore pressure dissipation phase and soil laboratory tests (including consolidation, permeability and triaxial tests) are also performed on silty sand samples with different silt content. In this study, six piezocone tests are performed in saturated silty sand samples with several different silt contents ranging from zero to 50 percent. The pore pressure dissipation tests are also carried out in samples and t50 (the time for 50% pore pressure dissipation) is evaluated. Laboratory tests including consolidation, permeability and triaxial tests are also performed for the soil parameter determination. Based on the obtained results, the interrelationships among “K- t50”, “Cv - t50” and “f'-qc” are finally presented


[1]     J. H., Schmertmann, "Guidelines for CPT: performance and design" ReportFHWA-TS-78-209, Federal Highway Administration, WashingtonDC, 145 p, 1978.
[2]     P. K., Robertson, R. G., Campanella, M. P., Davies, "Axial capacity of driven piles in deltaic soils using CPT".In proc. of Int. Penetration Testing (2), 1988.
[3]     O. M, Alsamman, "The use of CPT for calculating axial capacity of drilled shafts". PhD Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 300 p, 1995.
[4]     H. G., Poulos, "Pile behavior: theory and application." Geotechnique 39 (3), 363-415, 1989.
[5]     P.W., Mayne, "Stress-Strain-Strength-flow parameters from enhanced in situ tests" in Proc. of International Conference on In Situ Measurement of Soil Properties & Case Histories, Bali, Indonesia, May 21-24, pp. 27-48, 2001.
[6]     P., Filho, "Influence of Excess Pore Water Pressure on Cone Measurements." In Proc. of the second European Symposium on Penetration Testing, ESOPT-II, Amsterdam, 2, 805-11, Balkema Pub., Rotterdam, 1982.
[7]     R. W., Peterson, "Laboratory Investigation of the Penetration Resistance of Fine Cohesionless Materials." In Proc. of the International Symposium on Penetration Testing, ISOPT-1, Orlando, 2, 895-902, 1988.
[8]     P. P., Rahardjo, T. L., Brandon, G. W., Clough, "Study of Cone Penetration Resistance of Silty Sands in the Calibration Chamber." Int. Symp. on Cone Penetration Testing, 1995.
[9]     R., Ziaie-Moayed, "Evaluation of Cone Penetration Test Results in Loose Silty Sand". PhD Dissertation, Geotechnical Department, College of Civil Engineering, IranUniversity of Science and Technology, 2001.
[10]  M. H. Baziar, R. Ziaie_Moayed, "Effect of silt content in sand on CPT results using calibration chambers", International Journal of Civil Engineering, Iran Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 16-28, Sep. 2003.
[11]  M. H., Baziar, R., Ziaie_Moayed, "Evaluation of cone penetration resistance in loose silty sand using calibration chamber", International Journal of Civil Engineering, Iran Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 106-119, June 2006.
[12]  M. H., Baziar, M., Esna-Ashari, "Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Silty Sand Using Laboratory Frozen Sample and CPT Results", International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol .2, No.3, pp 164-172, 2004.
[13]  ASTM D5778-95, "Standard Test Method for Performing Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils ", 1995.
[14]  A. K., Parkin, T., Lunne, "Boundary effects in the laboratory calibration of a cone penetrometer in sand", Proceedings of 2nd
European symposium on penetration testing ESOPT-II, Amsterdam, 2, 761-8, 1988.
[15]  M. H., Baziar, R., Ziaie_ Moayed, and S. A., Naeini, "Determination of consolidation, permeability and shear strength parameters of silty sand soils using CPTU results", IUST research reports (in Persian), 2007.
[16]  T., Lunne, H. P., Christofersen, "Interpretation of cone penetrometer data for offshore sands". In Proc. of the Offshore Technology Conference, Richardson, Texas, Paper No. 4464, 1983.
[17]  P. K., Robertson, R. G., Campanella, "Interpretation of cone penetration tests", Canadian     Geotechnical J. 20 (4), 718-745, 1983.
[18]  F. H., Kulhawy, P. W., Mayne, "Manual on estimating soil properties for foundation design". Report EL-6800, Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, 306 p., 1990.
[19]  N., Janbo, K., Senneset, "Effective stress interpretation of in situ static penetration tests". In Proc. of the first ESOPT, Stockholm, 2.2, 181-93, 1974.
[20]  H. T., Durgunoglu, J. K., Mitchell, "Static penetration resistance of soils". In Proc. of the ASCE Specialty Conference on In situ Measurement of Soil Properties, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1, 151-89, 1975. 
[21]  J. K., Mitchell, Keaveny, "CPT increases in sands after blasting" ASCE GSP 6, Blacksburg, 823-839, 1986.
[22]  A. S., Vesic, "Principles of pile foundation design". Soil mechanics series No. 38, DukeUniversity, Durham, NC, 1975.
[23]  M. M, Baligh, "Cavity Expansion in Sands with Curved Envelopes". Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 102 (GT11), 1131-46, 1976.
[24]  S., Thavanayagam, "Liquefaction potential and undrained fragility of silty soils", Proceedings of 12th World Conference of earthquake engineering, Newzeland, 2000.
[25]  M., Jamiolkowski, C. C., Ladd, J. T., Germaine, R., Lancelotta, "New developments in field and laboratory testing of soils". State of the art report, in Proc. of the 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, 1, 57-135, 1985.
[26]  C. I., Teh, G. T., Houlsby, "An analytical study of the cone penetration tests in clay". Geotechnique, 41(1), 17-34, 1991.
[27]  B. A., Torstensson, "Pore pressure sounding instruments". In proc. of the ASCE Specialty Conference on in Situ Measurement of Soil Properties, Raleigh, North Carolina, 2, 48- 54, American Society of Engineers (ASCE), 1975.
[28]  J. N., Levadoux, M. M., Baligh, "Calibration after undrained piezocone penetration" Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 112(7), 707-26, 1986.
[29]  P. K., Robertson, J. P., Sully, D. J. Woeller, T. Lunne, J. J. M., Powell, D. G., Gillespie, "Estimating coefficient of consolidation from piezocone tests". Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 29(4), 551-7, 1992.
[30]  G. T. Houlsby, C. I., Teh, "Analysis of the piezocone in clay". In Proc. of the ISOPT-1, Orlando, 2, 777-83, Balkema Pub. Rotterdam, 1988.
[31]  Parez, Fauriel, "Le piezocone ameliorations approach a la reconnaissance de sols." Revue Francaise de Geotech. 44: 13-27, 1988.