Effects of Influence Parameters on Color Formation in Glucose Syrups during Storage

Document Type : Research Article



Effects of pH, temperature, and syrup concentration on color formation in glucose syrups were studied and the shelf life of syrups under various conditions was estimated. Temperatures of 5, 25, and 45 ºC, pH values of 4, 5, and 6 as well as concentrations of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 ºBrix were examined. After 26 weeks no significant color changes were observed at 5 ºC. At 45 ºC, color formation rate was highest and after 2 weeks color changes were visible, and at 15th week syrup color was completely brown. At 25 ºC, color formation rate was low and at week 18 color changes were visible. At pH 5, rate of browning was lower than at other pH values. Increasing the syrup concentration up to 70 ºBrix enhanced the color formation rate but higher concentrations decreased the color formation rate. The kinetics of color formation was studied and rate constants and activation energies were calculated.


[1]     C. G. A. Davies, B. L. Wedzicha, and C. GILLARD, “Kinetics model of the glucose-glysine reaction,” Food Chem., vol 60, pp. 323-329, 1997.
[2]     S. Z. Dziedzic, and M. W. Kearsley, “Glucose syrups: Science and technology. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1984.
[3]     M. W. Kearsley, “The control of hygroscopicity, browning and fermentation in glucose syrups,” J. Food Technol., vol. 13, pp. 339-348, 1978.
[4]     S. Ramchander, and M .S. Feather, “Studies on the mechanism of color formation in glucose syrups,” Cereal Chem., vol. 52, pp. 167-173, 1975.
[5]     A. Raisi, and A. Aroujalian, “Reduction of the glucose syrup browning rate by the use of modified atmospheric packaging,” J. Food Eng., vol. 80, pp. 370-373, 2007.
[6]     CRA. 1985, pH Measurement Method (E48). Corn Refiners Association Inc., Washington, D.C.
[7]     ISO 1982, Measurement of soluble solids ISO 1743. International Standardization, Geneva.
[8]     S. Meydav, I. Saguy, and J. I. Kopelman, “Browning determination in citrus products,” J. Agric. and Food Chem., vol. 25, pp. 602-604, 1977.
[9]     ISI 1999, ISI 24-1e Determination of protein by Kjeldal. International Starch Institute, Science Park Aarhus, Denmark.
[10]  A. C. Maillard, “Action des acides amines sur les sucres. Formation des melanoidines par voie methodologique,” C.R.A. Cad. Sci. vol. 154, pp. 66-68, 1912.
[11]  T. P. Labuza, “Interpreting the complexity of kinetics of the Maillard reaction,” in The Maillard reaction in food, nutrition and health, T.P. Labuza., G.A. Reineccuis and J. Baynes, Eds., Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1994.
[12]  T. P. Labuza, and D. Riboh, “Theory and application of Arrhenius kinetics to the prediction of nutrient losses in foods,” Food Technol., vol. 36, pp. 66-74, 1982.
[13]  T. P. Labuza, and M. Saltmarch, “Kinetics of browning and quality loss in whey powders during steady state and non-steady state storage conditions,” J. Food Sci., vol. 47, pp. 92-96, 1981.
[14]  T. P. Labuza, “A theoretical comparison of losses in foods under fluctuating temperature sequences,” J. Food Sci., vol. 44, pp. 1162-1168, 1979.
[15]  D. P. Buera, J. Chirife, S. L. Resnik, and G. Wetzler, “Non-enzymatic browning in liquid model systems of high water activity: kinetics of color changes due to Maillard reaction between different single sugars and glycine and comparison with caramelization browning,” J. Food Sci., vol. 52, pp. 1063-1067, 1987.
[16]  C. Petriella, S. L. Resnik, R. D. Lozano, and J. Chirife, “Kinetics of deteriorative reaction in model food systems of high water activity: color changes due to non-enzymatic browning,” J. Food Sci., vol. 50, pp. 622-625, 1985.
[17]  J. H. Baxter, “Free amino acid stability in reducing sugar systems,” J. Food Sci., vol. 60, pp. 405-408, 1995.
[18]  S .H. Ashoor, and J. B. Zent, “Maillard browning in common amino acids and sugars,” J. Food Sci., vol. 49, pp. 1206-1207, 1984.
[19]  T. P. Labuza, and M. K. Schmidl, “Advances in the control of browning reactions in foods,” in Role of chemistry in the quality of processed food, O.R. Fennema, W.H.Chang, and Y.L. Cheng, Eds., Westport, Conn.: Food and Nutrition Press, 1986, pp. 65-95.
[20]  S. I. F. S. Martins, “Unraveling the Maillard reaction network by multi-response kinetic modeling,” PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 2003, pp. 126-147.
[21]  P. Cerrutti, S. L. Resnik, A. Seldes, and C. F. Fontan, “Kinetics of deteriorative reaction in model food systems of high water activity: glucose loss, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural accumulation and fluorescence development due to non-enzymatic browning,” J. Food Sci., vol. 50, pp. 627-630, 1985.