School of Computer Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Agents, in a multi agent system, communicate with each other through the process of exchanging messages which is called dialogue. Multi agent organization is generally used to optimize agents’ communications. Holonic organization demonstrates a self-similar recursive and hierarchical structure in which each holon may include some other holons. In a holonic system, lateral communication occurs between members of a determined holon and vertical communications are inter-level ones between different holons. When agents start a dialogue, according to their beliefs, they follow some rules that define the permissive speech acts called dialogue protocol. The dialogue strategy is the policy of agents to choose a particular speech act among the allowed ones by the protocol in order to achieve the common goals of holon. In this paper a formal model for dialogue strategy for lateral communication in a holon is proposed. This model tries to choose the most preferable speech acts considering at the same time local beliefs and goals along with public knowledge obtained from holonic organization. Moreover, the argumentation theory is applied to rank and define the values of speech acts. The proposed model finds the most preferable option to utter and it also decreases the number of exchanging messages. The proposed model of dialogue strategy is illustrated via a deliberation dialogue example in a holon. The example showed a significant efficiency in decreasing the number of exchanged messages and the effectiveness of deliberation.
 M. Wooldridge, An Introduction to Multi Agent Systems, Second edition, WILEY Publication, 2009.  B. Horling, V. Lesser, “a survey of multi-agent organizational paradigms,” The Knowledge Engineering Review, Vol. 19(4), Pages 281 – 316, Cambridge University Press, 2005.  E. Van Baar, R. Verbrugge, “A communication algorithm for teamwork in multi-agent environments,” Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics, Vol. 19 (4), Pages 431-461, Taylor & Francis Publication, 2009.  P. Mathieu, J. C. Routier, Y. Secq, “Dynamic organization of multi-agent systems,” in Proceedings of the first international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems: part 1, Pages 451-452, ACM, 2002.  A. González-Pardo, P. Varona, D. Camacho, F. D. B. R. Ortiz, “Optimal message interchange in a self-organizing multi-agent system,” In Intelligent Distributed Computing IV, Pages 131-141, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010.  O. Boissier, F. Balbo, F. Badeig, “Controlling multi-party interaction within normative multi-agent organizations,” Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, and Norms in Agent Systems VI, Springer, Pages 357-376, 2011.  A. Fatemi, K. Zamanifar, N. Nematbakhsh, “Adaptive team-based multi-agent organizational model: a case in rescue systems,” International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT), Vol. 3(2), Pages 165-175, 2011.
 S. Parsons, P. McBurney, E. Sklar, M. Wooldridge, “On the relevance of utterances in formal inter-agent dialogues,” in Proceedings of the 6th international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multi agent systems, ACM, 2007.  A. Kakas, N. Maudet, P. Moraitis, “Layered strategies and protocols for argumentation-based agent interaction,” In Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems, Pages 64-77, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005.  S. Rodriguez, From Analysis to Design of Holonic Multi-Agent Systems: a Framework, Methodological Guidelines and Applications, PhD thesis, Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, 2005.  D. Srinivasan, M. C. Choy, “Hybrid multi-agent systems,” Innovations in Multi-Agent Systems and Applications-1, Pages 29-42, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010.  L. Amgoud, N. Hameurlain, “A formal model for designing dialogue strategies,” in Proceedings of the fifth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multi agent systems, Pages 414-416, ACM, 2006.  P. Besnard, A. Hunter, Elements of Argumentation, MIT Press, 2008.  P. M. Dung, “On the acceptability of arguments and its fundamental role in non-monotonic reasoning,” logic programming and n-person games, Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 77(2), Pages 321–357, 1995.  S. Kacia, L. van der Torre, “Preference-based argumentation: arguments supporting multiple values,” International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, Vol. 48(3), Pages 730–751, 2008.  E. M. Kok, J. J. C. Meyer, H. Prakken, G. A. Vreeswijk, “A formal argumentation framework for deliberation dialogues,” Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems, Pages 31-48, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.  L. Amgoud, N. Hameurlain, “An argumentation-based approach for dialog move selection,” Argumentation in multi-agent systems, Pages 128-141, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007.  A. Beigi, N. Mozayani, “A new dialogue strategy in multi-agent systems,” Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 27(2), 641-653, 2014.  L. Amgoud, S. Belabbes, H. Prade, “A formal general setting for dialogue protocols,” in Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications, Pages13-23, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006.  E. M. Kok, J. J. C. Meyer, H. Prakken, G. A. Vreeswijk, “Testing the benefits of structured argumentation in multi-agent deliberation dialogues,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems, Vol. 3, Pages 1411-1412, 2012.  T. L. van der Weide, F. Dignum, “Reasoning about and discussing preferences between arguments,” Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems, Pages 117-135, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.  E. M. Kok, J. J. C. Meyer, H. Prakken, G. A. Vreeswijk, “A formal argumentation framework for deliberation dialogues,” Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems, Pages 31-48, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.