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The Quantification of Uncertainties in Production Prediction Using Integrated Statistical and Neural Network Approaches: An Iranian Gas Field Case Study
The Quantification of Uncertainties in Production Prediction Using Integrated Statistical and Neural Network Approaches: An Iranian Gas Field Case Study
2
2
Uncertainty in production prediction has been subject to numerous investigations. Geological and reservoir engineering data comprise a huge number of data entries to the simulation models. Thus, uncertainty of these data can largely affect the reliability of the simulation model. Due to these reasons, it is worthy to present the desired quantity with a probability distribution instead of a single sharp value. For the casestudy, numbers of parameters which are believed to contribute largely the uncertainty of Field Gas Production Total are recognized. A sensitivity analysis was done to find the most significant initial parameters. Screening experiments are designed in order to recognize the main factors and the significant interactions of factors that we need to certainly include in the response function. Later, experiments of response surface are designed objective to model the response surface function of Field Gas Production Total. This has been done based on applying two methods, Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Networks. The probability distribution of Total Field Gas Production was then plotted using Monte Carlo simulation.
1
Uncertainty in production prediction has been subject to numerous investigations. Geological and reservoir engineering data comprise a huge number of data entries to the simulation models. Thus, uncertainty of these data can largely affect the reliability of the simulation model. Due to these reasons, it is worthy to present the desired quantity with a probability distribution instead of a single sharp value. For the casestudy, numbers of parameters which are believed to contribute largely the uncertainty of Field Gas Production Total are recognized. A sensitivity analysis was done to find the most significant initial parameters. Screening experiments are designed in order to recognize the main factors and the significant interactions of factors that we need to certainly include in the response function. Later, experiments of response surface are designed objective to model the response surface function of Field Gas Production Total. This has been done based on applying two methods, Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Networks. The probability distribution of Total Field Gas Production was then plotted using Monte Carlo simulation.
1
7
A.
Abdollahzadehi
A.
Abdollahzadehi
Iran


M.
Hosseini
Iran


Gh.
Zargarii
Iran
Reservoir
Simulation
Uncertainty
Gas
Sensitivity
[[1] Abdollahzadeh, A.: “Koma Field’s FullField Model Update and History Matching”; IFPschool, France; Final MS Thesis in Reservoir Geoscience and Engineering; 2002. ##[2] Chewaroungroaj, J.; Varela, Omar J., SPE; and Lake, Larry W.SPE, The University of Texas at Austin: “An Evaluation of Procedures to Estimate Uncertainty in Hydrocarbon Recovery Predictions”, paper SPE 59449 presented at the 2000 SPE Asia Pacific Conference on Integrated Modelling for Asset Management held in Yokohama, Japan, 2526 April 2000. ##[3] Cox, D.R.; Reid, N.: "The Theory of the Design of Experiments", Chapman & Hall/CRC; 1 edition; June 6, 2000. ##[4] Damsleth E., SPE; Hage, Asmund, Norsk Hydro A/S; Volden,Rolf, Norwegian Computing Center: “Maximum Information at Minimum Cost: A North Sea Field Development Study with an Experimental Design”, paper SPE 23139; 1992. ##[5] Dejean, J. P., IFP; and Blanc, G., SPE, IFP: “Managing Uncertainties on Production Predictions Using Integrated Statistical Methods”, paper SPE 56696 presented at the 1999 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Houston, Texas, 36 October 1999. ##[6] JMP6 Software Manual”; SAS Co; 2005. ##[7] Lechner, J. P., SPE; OMV AG, and Zangl., G., SPE,Schlumberger Information Solutions: “Treating Uncertainties in Reservoir Performance Prediction with Neural Networks”,paper SPE presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference held in Madrid, Spain, 1316 June 2005. ##[8] Mason, Robert L.; Gunst, Richard F.; Hess, James L.:"Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments with Applications to Engineering and Science”; Second Edition, AJOHN WILEY & SONS PUBLICATION; 2003. ##[9] NIST/SEMATECH “eHandbook of Statistical Methods”,http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/, 2006. ##[10] “Smith, O.J.; Hendry, D.J.; and Crowther, A.R., BP Exploration: “The Quantification and Management of Uncertainty in Reserves”, paper SPE 26056 presented at the Wostorn Regional Meeting held in Anchorago, Alaska,U.S.A., 2628 May 1993. ##[11] “Statistica Software Manual”; Statsoft Co; 2003.##]
Design, Modeling, and Construction of a New Tactile Sensor for Measuring ContactForce
Design, Modeling, and Construction of a New Tactile Sensor for Measuring ContactForce
2
2
This paper presents the design, modeling, and testing of a flexible tactile sensor and its applications. This sensor is made of polymer materials and can detect the 2D surface texture image and contactforce estimation. The sensing mechanism is based on the novel contact deflection effect of a membrane. We measure the deflection of the membrane with measuring the strain in the membrane with embedded strain gauge. It consists of a chamber and a membrane. Inner radius of the sensor element is 2 cm and its outer radius is 3cm. Furthermore, the size and shape can be easily tailored to the applications requirements. The proposed sensor with the potential for further miniaturization is suitable for using in medical applications, especially in minimally invasive surgery.
1
This paper presents the design, modeling, and testing of a flexible tactile sensor and its applications. This sensor is made of polymer materials and can detect the 2D surface texture image and contactforce estimation. The sensing mechanism is based on the novel contact deflection effect of a membrane. We measure the deflection of the membrane with measuring the strain in the membrane with embedded strain gauge. It consists of a chamber and a membrane. Inner radius of the sensor element is 2 cm and its outer radius is 3cm. Furthermore, the size and shape can be easily tailored to the applications requirements. The proposed sensor with the potential for further miniaturization is suitable for using in medical applications, especially in minimally invasive surgery.
9
14


Ali
Tavakoli Golpayganii
Iran


Siamak
Najarianii
Iran


Goldis
Darb Emamiehiii
Iran
Tactile Sensor
Contact Force
deflection
Membrane
[[1] M. H. Lee, H. R. Nicholls, "Tactile sensing for mechatronics–a stateoftheart survey," Mechatronics, vol. 9, pp. 131, 1999. ##[2] J. Dargahi, S. Najarian, "Advances in tactile sensors design/manufacturing and its impact on robotics applications–a review,” Industrial Robot, vol. 32, pp. 268281, 2005. ##[3] R. D. Howe, W. J. Peine, D. A. Kontarinis and J. S. Son, "Remote palpation technology," Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.,vol. 14, pp. 318323, 1994. ##[4] S. Najarian, J. Dargahi, and X.Z. Zheng, "A novel method in measuring the stiffness of sensed objects with applications for biomedical robotic systems," Int. J. Med. Robotics Comput. Assist. Sur., vol. 2, pp. 8490, 2006. ##[5] H. Singh, J. Dargahi and R. Sedaghati, "Experimental and finite element analysis of an endoscopic toothlike tactile sensor," 2nd ##IEEE International Conference on Sensors, Toronto, Canada, 2003. ##[6] J. Dargahi, "An endoscopic and robotic toothlike compliance and roughness tactile sensor," J. Mech. Design, vol. 124, pp. 576582, 2002. ##[7] P. N. Brett, R. S. Stone, "A technique for measuring contact force distribution in minimally invasive surgical procedures," Journal of Engineering in Medicine, vol. 211, pp. 309316, 1997. ##[8] N. P. Rao, J. Dargahi, M. Kahrizi and S. Prasad, "Design and fabrication of a microtactile sensor," Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering towards a Caring and Human Technology, Montreal, Canada, 2003. ##[9] J. Dargahi, S. Najarian, "An integrated forceposition tactile sensor for improving diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic surgery," BioMed. Mater., vol. 14, pp. 151166, 2004. ##[10] J. Dargahi, M. Parameswaran, and S. Payandeh, "A micromachined piezoelectric tactile sensor for an endoscopic grasper: theory, fabrication, and experiments," J. Microelectromechan. Syst., vol. 9, pp. 329335, 2000. ##[11] J. B. McGinty, S. S. Burkhart, R. W. Jackson, D. Johnson, and J. Richmond, "Operative arthroscopy," Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philidelphia, 2002. ##[12] J. Dargahi, S. Najarian, "Analysis of a membrane type polymericbased tactile sensor for biomedical and medical robotic applications," Sensors & Materials, vol.16, pp. 2541, 2004. ##[13] J. Weimin Shen Gu, E. Milios, "Robotic neurosurgery and clinical applications," Proc. Intelligent Mechatronics and Automation Int. Conf., pp. 114119, 2004. ##[14] G. Widmann, "Imageguided surgery and medical robotics in the cranial area," Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal, vol. 3, 2007. ##[15] B. Davies, K. L. Fan, R. D. Hibberd, M. Jakopec, S. J. Harris, "A mechatronic based robotic system for knee surgery," Intelligent Information Systems, pp. 4852, 1997. ##[16] P.N. Brett, B. Allotta, J. Wahrburg, V. Petridis, "Research on innovative mechatronic tools and systems for surgical procedures involving soft tissues," Proc. Mechatronics and Medicine Vision in Practice,Fourth Annual,pp. 5759, 1997. ##[17] Y. Wakasa, M. Oka, K. Tanaka, M. Fujii, S. Yamauchi, and K. Minami, "Development of a needleinsertion robot for MRIguided stereotactic surgery," Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, vol. 18, pp. 643649, 2006. ##[18] H. H. Rininsland, "Basics of robotics and manipulators in endoscopic surgery," Endoscop. Surg. Allied. Technol., vol. 1, pp. 154159, 1993. ##[19] J. Mallin, "Handbook of a simple sense of touch for robotic fingers," Robotics Age, pp. 2427, 1989. ##[20] R. S. Fearing, "Handbook of tactile sensing mechanisms," Int. J. Robotics Res., vol. 9, pp. 323., 1990. ##[21] E. S. Kolesar, R. R. Reston, D. G. Frod, and R.C. Fitch, "Handbook of multiplexed piezoelectric polymer tactile sensor," J. Robotic Systems, vol.9, pp. 3763, 1992. ##[22] D. T. Jenstrom, C. L. Chen, "Handbook of a fiber optic micro bend tactile sensor," Sensors and Actuators, vol. 20, pp. 239248, 1989. ##[23] J. M. Vranish, "Handbook of a high resolution tactile sensor," Robot Sensor, vol. 2, pp. 99111, 1986. ##[24] C. Shanlin, Z. Zhoulian, "Large deformation of circular membrane under the concentrated force," Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, vol. 24, pp. 2831, 2003. ##[25] J. Dargahi, S. Najarian, "An endoscopic force position grasper with minimum sensors," Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 28, pp. 151161, 2004. ##]
StrengthFlow Parameters of Loose Silty Sands From Piezocone Tests
StrengthFlow Parameters of Loose Silty Sands From Piezocone Tests
2
2
Piezocone penetration tests with dissipation phases are particularly useful for geotechnical site characterization. They also provide three independent readings with depth from a single sounding as well as timerate information. In past investigations, only silty sands with specific silt content have been tested and complete sets of tests have not been conducted to evaluate the influence of different silt contents on CPTU results. In the present research, the complimentary CPTU tests with pore pressure dissipation phase and soil laboratory tests (including consolidation, permeability and triaxial tests) are also performed on silty sand samples with different silt content. In this study, six piezocone tests are performed in saturated silty sand samples with several different silt contents ranging from zero to 50 percent. The pore pressure dissipation tests are also carried out in samples and t50 (the time for 50% pore pressure dissipation) is evaluated. Laboratory tests including consolidation, permeability and triaxial tests are also performed for the soil parameter determination. Based on the obtained results, the interrelationships among “K t50”, “Cv  t50” and “f'qc” are finally presented
1
Piezocone penetration tests with dissipation phases are particularly useful for geotechnical site characterization. They also provide three independent readings with depth from a single sounding as well as timerate information. In past investigations, only silty sands with specific silt content have been tested and complete sets of tests have not been conducted to evaluate the influence of different silt contents on CPTU results. In the present research, the complimentary CPTU tests with pore pressure dissipation phase and soil laboratory tests (including consolidation, permeability and triaxial tests) are also performed on silty sand samples with different silt content. In this study, six piezocone tests are performed in saturated silty sand samples with several different silt contents ranging from zero to 50 percent. The pore pressure dissipation tests are also carried out in samples and t50 (the time for 50% pore pressure dissipation) is evaluated. Laboratory tests including consolidation, permeability and triaxial tests are also performed for the soil parameter determination. Based on the obtained results, the interrelationships among “K t50”, “Cv  t50” and “f'qc” are finally presented
15
23


Seyed Abolhassan
Naeini
Iran


Mohammad Hassan
Baziar
Iran
Silty Sand
Pore Pressure Dissipation
CPTU
Coefficient of Consolidation
Permeability
[[1] J. H., Schmertmann, "Guidelines for CPT: performance and design" ReportFHWATS78209, Federal Highway Administration, WashingtonDC, 145 p, 1978. ##[2] P. K., Robertson, R. G., Campanella, M. P., Davies, "Axial capacity of driven piles in deltaic soils using CPT".In proc. of Int. Penetration Testing (2), 1988. ##[3] O. M, Alsamman, "The use of CPT for calculating axial capacity of drilled shafts". PhD Dissertation, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, 300 p, 1995. ##[4] H. G., Poulos, "Pile behavior: theory and application." Geotechnique 39 (3), 363415, 1989. ##[5] P.W., Mayne, "StressStrainStrengthflow parameters from enhanced in situ tests" in Proc. of International Conference on In Situ Measurement of Soil Properties & Case Histories, Bali, Indonesia, May 2124, pp. 2748, 2001. ##[6] P., Filho, "Influence of Excess Pore Water Pressure on Cone Measurements." In Proc. of the second European Symposium on Penetration Testing, ESOPTII, Amsterdam, 2, 80511, Balkema Pub., Rotterdam, 1982. ##[7] R. W., Peterson, "Laboratory Investigation of the Penetration Resistance of Fine Cohesionless Materials." In Proc. of the International Symposium on Penetration Testing, ISOPT1, Orlando, 2, 895902, 1988. ##[8] P. P., Rahardjo, T. L., Brandon, G. W., Clough, "Study of Cone Penetration Resistance of Silty Sands in the Calibration Chamber." Int. Symp. on Cone Penetration Testing, 1995. ##[9] R., ZiaieMoayed, "Evaluation of Cone Penetration Test Results in Loose Silty Sand". PhD Dissertation, Geotechnical Department, College of Civil Engineering, IranUniversity of Science and Technology, 2001. ##[10] M. H. Baziar, R. Ziaie_Moayed, "Effect of silt content in sand on CPT results using calibration chambers", International Journal of Civil Engineering, Iran Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 1628, Sep. 2003. ##[11] M. H., Baziar, R., Ziaie_Moayed, "Evaluation of cone penetration resistance in loose silty sand using calibration chamber", International Journal of Civil Engineering, Iran Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 106119, June 2006. ##[12] M. H., Baziar, M., EsnaAshari, "Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Silty Sand Using Laboratory Frozen Sample and CPT Results", International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol .2, No.3, pp 164172, 2004. ##[13] ASTM D577895, "Standard Test Method for Performing Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils ", 1995. ##[14] A. K., Parkin, T., Lunne, "Boundary effects in the laboratory calibration of a cone penetrometer in sand", Proceedings of 2nd ##European symposium on penetration testing ESOPTII, Amsterdam, 2, 7618, 1988. ##[15] M. H., Baziar, R., Ziaie_ Moayed, and S. A., Naeini, "Determination of consolidation, permeability and shear strength parameters of silty sand soils using CPTU results", IUST research reports (in Persian), 2007. ##[16] T., Lunne, H. P., Christofersen, "Interpretation of cone penetrometer data for offshore sands". In Proc. of the Offshore Technology Conference, Richardson, Texas, Paper No. 4464, 1983. ##[17] P. K., Robertson, R. G., Campanella, "Interpretation of cone penetration tests", Canadian Geotechnical J. 20 (4), 718745, 1983. ##[18] F. H., Kulhawy, P. W., Mayne, "Manual on estimating soil properties for foundation design". Report EL6800, Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, 306 p., 1990. ##[19] N., Janbo, K., Senneset, "Effective stress interpretation of in situ static penetration tests". In Proc. of the first ESOPT, Stockholm, 2.2, 18193, 1974. ##[20] H. T., Durgunoglu, J. K., Mitchell, "Static penetration resistance of soils". In Proc. of the ASCE Specialty Conference on In situ Measurement of Soil Properties, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1, 15189, 1975. ##[21] J. K., Mitchell, Keaveny, "CPT increases in sands after blasting" ASCE GSP 6, Blacksburg, 823839, 1986. ##[22] A. S., Vesic, "Principles of pile foundation design". Soil mechanics series No. 38, DukeUniversity, Durham, NC, 1975. ##[23] M. M, Baligh, "Cavity Expansion in Sands with Curved Envelopes". Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 102 (GT11), 113146, 1976. ##[24] S., Thavanayagam, "Liquefaction potential and undrained fragility of silty soils", Proceedings of 12th World Conference of earthquake engineering, Newzeland, 2000. ##[25] M., Jamiolkowski, C. C., Ladd, J. T., Germaine, R., Lancelotta, "New developments in field and laboratory testing of soils". State of the art report, in Proc. of the 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, 1, 57135, 1985. ##[26] C. I., Teh, G. T., Houlsby, "An analytical study of the cone penetration tests in clay". Geotechnique, 41(1), 1734, 1991. ##[27] B. A., Torstensson, "Pore pressure sounding instruments". In proc. of the ASCE Specialty Conference on in Situ Measurement of Soil Properties, Raleigh, North Carolina, 2, 48 54, American Society of Engineers (ASCE), 1975. ##[28] J. N., Levadoux, M. M., Baligh, "Calibration after undrained piezocone penetration" Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 112(7), 70726, 1986. ##[29] P. K., Robertson, J. P., Sully, D. J. Woeller, T. Lunne, J. J. M., Powell, D. G., Gillespie, "Estimating coefficient of consolidation from piezocone tests". Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 29(4), 5517, 1992. ##[30] G. T. Houlsby, C. I., Teh, "Analysis of the piezocone in clay". In Proc. of the ISOPT1, Orlando, 2, 77783, Balkema Pub. Rotterdam, 1988. ##[31] Parez, Fauriel, "Le piezocone ameliorations approach a la reconnaissance de sols." Revue Francaise de Geotech. 44: 1327, 1988.##]
Preliminary Site Selection of Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants  A GISbased approach
Preliminary Site Selection of Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants  A GISbased approach
2
2
The first stage in development and design of Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants (PSHP) is finding the optimum location. This paper presents a methodology for preliminary site selection of PSHP with the help of geospatial data analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The conventional method of PSHP site selection has certain limitations and is not cost and time effective. The volume of data and the criteria for the site selection of PSHP causes a lot of difficulties for decision making. However, with the help of GIS as an information technology and with its analytical ability for decision making optimization, we can overcome these difficulties. Every criterion in a GIS can be illustrated as a separate data layer and site selection can be done according to the defined criteria. Overlay is one of the spatial functions that can combine spatial data layers from different sources for the site selection applications. In the process of site selection of suitable PSHP, various factors with different importance are considered.The Zayanderud pumped storage hydropower has been investigated as a case study. Suitable sites were identified based on spatial analysis in GIS environment. The Zayanderud PSHP is located in a dry and hot zone in central Iran and uses the existing Zayanderud dam lake as the lower reservoir. During this study, sites for upper reservoir location have been defined according to the artificial upper reservoir on the bank of the zayanderud reservoir. In this case study, at first, effective criteria for PSHP site location and corresponsive data layers have been defined. Then, data layers have been classified and prepared with respect to main criteria. Finally, results of overlay have been evaluated. The main factors used in PSHP site selection process were; development pattern (using existing lake, rivers, sea, natural and artificial pools, etc. as upper or lower reservoirs), head, conveyance lengthhead ratio, slope, power grid situation, roads accessibility, geology and other technical points of view. The above mentioned factors were entered in GIS as data layers. Results of this investigation indicate that by using GIS, more suitable sites can be selected and verified and the feasibility study process can be done in more precise manner. This method can save more time and cost compared to the conventional approach.
1
The first stage in development and design of Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants (PSHP) is finding the optimum location. This paper presents a methodology for preliminary site selection of PSHP with the help of geospatial data analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The conventional method of PSHP site selection has certain limitations and is not cost and time effective. The volume of data and the criteria for the site selection of PSHP causes a lot of difficulties for decision making. However, with the help of GIS as an information technology and with its analytical ability for decision making optimization, we can overcome these difficulties. Every criterion in a GIS can be illustrated as a separate data layer and site selection can be done according to the defined criteria. Overlay is one of the spatial functions that can combine spatial data layers from different sources for the site selection applications. In the process of site selection of suitable PSHP, various factors with different importance are considered.The Zayanderud pumped storage hydropower has been investigated as a case study. Suitable sites were identified based on spatial analysis in GIS environment. The Zayanderud PSHP is located in a dry and hot zone in central Iran and uses the existing Zayanderud dam lake as the lower reservoir. During this study, sites for upper reservoir location have been defined according to the artificial upper reservoir on the bank of the zayanderud reservoir. In this case study, at first, effective criteria for PSHP site location and corresponsive data layers have been defined. Then, data layers have been classified and prepared with respect to main criteria. Finally, results of overlay have been evaluated. The main factors used in PSHP site selection process were; development pattern (using existing lake, rivers, sea, natural and artificial pools, etc. as upper or lower reservoirs), head, conveyance lengthhead ratio, slope, power grid situation, roads accessibility, geology and other technical points of view. The above mentioned factors were entered in GIS as data layers. Results of this investigation indicate that by using GIS, more suitable sites can be selected and verified and the feasibility study process can be done in more precise manner. This method can save more time and cost compared to the conventional approach.
25
32


Hassan
Ahmadii
Iran


Abolfazl
Shamsaiii
Iran
Hydropower
Pumped Storage
Site selection
Geographic Information System (GIS)
Zayanderud
[[1] A.K. Dikshit, T. Padmavathi, R.K. Das, “Locating potential landfill sites using geographic information systems” , Journal of Environmental Systems, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 43 –54, 2001. ##[2] A. Lukasheh, R. Droste, M. Warith, “Review of Expert System (ES), Geographic Information System (GIS), Decision Support System (DSS) and their application in landfill design and management”, Waste Management and Research, vol.19, no. 2, pp 177185, 2001. ##[3] B. Paul, “GIS Fundamentals: A First Text on Geographic Information systems”, White Bear Lake, Eider Press, 2002, 412 p. ##[4] G. Lyon, “GIS for Water Resources and Watershed Management”, CRC PRESS Publication, 2003, 266 p. ##[5] J. Kao, H. Lin, W. Chen, “Network Geographic Information System for landfill siting”, Waste Management and Research, vol. 15,Issue: 3, pp 239253, 1997 ##[6] R. Daneshvar, M. Warith, and B. Daneshfar, “Customizing ArcMap Interface to Generate a UserFriendly Landfill Site Selection GIS Tool”, Environmental Informatics Archives, Volume 1, pp. 428437, 2003. ##[7] T.H. Douglas, “Pumped storage”, Thomas Telford Publication, 1990, 449p. ##[8] T.V. Ramachandra, R. Kumar Jha, S.V. Krishna and B.V. Shruthi, “Spatial Decision Support System for Assessing Micro, Mini and Small Hydel Potential”, Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 4 (4), pp. 596604, 2004. ##[9] Iran water and power resources development Co., "Feasibility study of pumped storage hydropower plant in Isfahan electricity region", 2007.##]
Evaluation of the Centre Manifold Method for Limit Cycle Calculations of a Nonlinear Structural Wing
Evaluation of the Centre Manifold Method for Limit Cycle Calculations of a Nonlinear Structural Wing
2
2
In this study the centre manifold is applied for reduction and limit cycle calculation of a highly nonlinear structural aeroelastic wing. The limit cycle is arisen from structural nonlinearity due to the large deflection of the wing. Results obtained by different orders of centre manifolds are compared with those obtained by time marching method (fourthorder RungeKutta method). These comparisons show zero, third and fifth order manifolds are very good approximation of this system. The aeroelastic model is a low aspect ratio rectangular cantilevered wing in a low subsonic flow which is structurally modeled by the Von Karman plate theory. A continuous time reduced order modified vortex lattice aerodynamics model is utilized in aerodynamics modeling.
1
In this study the centre manifold is applied for reduction and limit cycle calculation of a highly nonlinear structural aeroelastic wing. The limit cycle is arisen from structural nonlinearity due to the large deflection of the wing. Results obtained by different orders of centre manifolds are compared with those obtained by time marching method (fourthorder RungeKutta method). These comparisons show zero, third and fifth order manifolds are very good approximation of this system. The aeroelastic model is a low aspect ratio rectangular cantilevered wing in a low subsonic flow which is structurally modeled by the Von Karman plate theory. A continuous time reduced order modified vortex lattice aerodynamics model is utilized in aerodynamics modeling.
33
41


Morteza
Dardeli
Iran


Firooz
BakhtiariNejadii
Iran
Centre manifold
Limit Cycle
Nonlinear aeroelasticity
Von Karman plate
Domain of attraction
[[1] E. H. Dowell, J. Edwards, and T. W. Strganac, Nonlinear Aeroelasticity, J. Aircraft, 40 (5) (2003) 857874. ##[2] Liu, L., Wong, Y. S., and Lee, B.H.K, Journal of Sound and Vibration 2002, 234(4), 641659, Application of the centre manifold theory in nonlinear aeroelasticity. ##[3] Shahrzad, P. and Mahzoon, M., Journal of Sound and Vibration 2002 256(2), 213225, Limit cycle flutter of airfoils in steady and unsteady flows. ##[4] Dess, D., Mastroddi, F., and Morino, L., Journal of Sound and Vibration 2002 256 (2) 347365, Limit cycle stability reversal near a Hopf bifurcation with aeroelastic applications. ##[5] Dess, D., Mastroddi, F., Journal of Fluids and Structures 2004 19, 765783, Limit cycle stability reversal via singular perturbation and wing flap flutter. ##[6] Grzedzinski, J., Journal of Fluids and Structures 2005, 21, 187209, Limitation of application of the centre manifold reduction in aeroelasticity ##[7] Qian , D., and Li, W. D., Aerospace Science and Technology 2006, 10, 427434, The flutter of an airfoil with cubic structural and aerodynamic nonlinearities. ##[8] Bi, Q.S., Yu, P., Journal of Computer and Applied Mathematics 1999, 102, 195220, Symbolic computation of normal forms for semisimple cases. ##[9] K.C. Hall, AIAA Journal, 1994, 32 (12) 24262423 Eigenanalysis of Unsteady Flows About Airfoils, Cascades, and Wings. ##[10] D. Tang, E.H. Dowell and K.C. Hall, AIAA Journal, 1999, 37 (3) 364371 Limit Cycle Oscillation of a Cantilevered Wing in Low Subsonic Flow. ##[11] M. BehbahaniNejad, H. Haddadpour, and V. Esfahanian, Journal of Aircraft 2005, 42 (4) 882886, ReducedOrder modeling of unsteady flows without static correction requirement ##[12] Dowell, E.H., Aeroelasticity of Plates ans Shells, Kluwer/Noordhoff International Publishing, Leyden, 1975. ##[13] Meirovitch, L., Principles and Techniques of Vibrations, PrenticeHall International INC. 1997. ##[14] J. Katz and A. Plotkin 1991, Low Speed Aerodynamics, From Wing Theory to Panel Methods, MCGRAW – HILL ,New York. ##[15] J. Carr 1981 Application of Centre Manifold Theory, New York, SpringerVerlag. ##]
Multiple Target Tracking With a 2D Radar Using the JPDAF Algorithm and Combined Motion Model
Multiple Target Tracking With a 2D Radar Using the JPDAF Algorithm and Combined Motion Model
2
2
Multiple target tracking (MTT) is taken into account as one of the most important topics in tracking targets with radars. In this paper, the MTT problem is used for estimating the position of multiple targets when a 2D radar is employed to gather measurements. To do so, the Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filter (JPDAF) approach is applied to tracking the position of multiple targets. To characterize the motion of each target, two models are used. First, a simple near constant velocity model is considered and then to enhance the tracking performance, specially, when targets make maneuvering movements a variable velocity model is proposed. In addition, a combined model is also proposed to mitigate the maneuvering movements better. This new model gives an advantage to explore the movement of the maneuvering objects which is common in many tracking problems. Simulation results show the superiority of the new motion model and its effect in the tracking performance of multiple targets.
1
Multiple target tracking (MTT) is taken into account as one of the most important topics in tracking targets with radars. In this paper, the MTT problem is used for estimating the position of multiple targets when a 2D radar is employed to gather measurements. To do so, the Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filter (JPDAF) approach is applied to tracking the position of multiple targets. To characterize the motion of each target, two models are used. First, a simple near constant velocity model is considered and then to enhance the tracking performance, specially, when targets make maneuvering movements a variable velocity model is proposed. In addition, a combined model is also proposed to mitigate the maneuvering movements better. This new model gives an advantage to explore the movement of the maneuvering objects which is common in many tracking problems. Simulation results show the superiority of the new motion model and its effect in the tracking performance of multiple targets.
43
51


Aliakbar
Gorji Daronkolaeii
Iran


Mohammad Bagher
Menhaj
Iran
menhaj@aut.ac.ir


Ali
Doostmohammadi
Iran
Multiple target tracking
JPDAF algorithm
data association
maneuvering movement
[[1] R. E. Kalman, and R. S. Bucy, New Results in Linear Filtering and Prediction, Trans. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series D, Journal of Basic Engineering, Vol. 83D, pp. 95–108, 1961. ##[2] Branko Ristic, Sanjeev Arulampalam, and Neil Gordon, Beyond the Kalman Filter: Particle Filters for Tracking Applications, Artech House, Boston, London, 2004. ##[3] R. Siegwart and I. R. Nourbakhsh, Intoduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots, MIT Press, 2004. ##[4] A. Howard, Multi robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping using Particle Filters, Robotics: Science and Systems I, pp. 201–208, 2005. ##[5] N.J. Gordon, D.J. Salmond, and A.F.M. Smith, A Novel Approach to Nonlinear/nonGaussian Bayesian State Estimation, IEE Proceedings F, 140(2):107–113, 1993. ##[6] M. Isard, and A. Blake, Contour Tracking by Stochastic Propagation of Conditional Density, In Proc. of the European Conference of Computer Vision, 1996. ##[7] D. Fox, S. Thrun, F. Dellaert, andW. Burgard, Particle Filters for Mobile Robot Localization, Sequential Monte Carlo Methods in Practice. Springer Verlag, New York, 2000. ##[8] C. Hue, J. P. L. Cadre, and P. Perez, Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Multiple Target Tracking and Data Fusion, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 50, NO. 2, February 2002. ##[9] B. Ristic, S. Arulampalam, and N. Gordon, Beyond the Kalman Filter, Artech House, 2004. ##[10] K. Kanazawa, D. Koller, and S.J. Russell, Stochastic Simulation Algorithms for Dynamic Probabilistic Networks, In Proc. of the 11th Annual Conference on Uncertainty in AI (UAI), Montreal, Canada, 1995. ##[11] F. Gustafsson, F. Gunnarsson, N. Bergman, U. Forssell, J. Jansson, R. Karlsson, and P. J. Nordlund, Particle Filters for Positioning, Navigation, and Tracking, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 2, February 2002. ##[12] D. Schulz, W. Burgard, D. Fox, and A. B. Cremers, People Tracking with a Mobile Robot Using Samplebased Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filters, International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR), 22(2), 2003. ##[13] M. S. Arulampalam, S. Maskell, N. Gordon, and T. Clapp, A Tutorial on Particle Filters for Online Nonlinear/NonGaussian Bayesian Tracking, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 2, February 2002. ##[14] N. Ikoma, N. Ichimura, T. Higuchi, and H. Maeda, Particle Filter Based Method for Maneuvering Target Tracking, IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Signal Processing, Budapest, Hungary, May 2425, pp.3– 8, 2001. ##[15] R. R. Pitre, V. P. Jilkov, and X. R. Li, A comparative study of multiple model algorithms for maneuvering target tracking, Proc. 2005 SPIE Conf. Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition XIV, Orlando, FL, March 2005. ##[16] T. E. Fortmann, Y. BarShalom, and M. Scheffe, Sonar Tracking of Multiple Targets Using Joint Probabilistic Data Association, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 8, pp. 173–184, 1983. ##[17] J. Vermaak, S. J. Godsill, and P. Perez, Monte Carlo Filtering for MultiTarget Tracking and Data Association, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 309–332, January 2005. ##[18] O. Frank, J. Nieto, J. Guivant, and S. Scheding, Multiple Target Tracking Using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods and Statistical Data Association, Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE/IRSJ, International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Las Vegas, Nevada, October 2003. ##[19] Jao F. G. de Freitas, Bayesian Methods for Neural Networks, PhD thesis, Trinity College, University of Cambridge, 1999. ##[20] P. D. Moral, A. Doucet, and A. Jasra, Sequential Monte Carlo Samplers, J. R. Statist. Soc. B, 68, Part 3, pp. 411–436, 2006.##]
Hybrid of Rationalized Haar Functions Method for Mixed Hammerstein Integral Equations
Hybrid of Rationalized Haar Functions Method for Mixed Hammerstein Integral Equations
2
2
A numerical method for solving nonlinear mixed Hammerstein integral equations is presented in this paper. The method is based upon hybrid of rationalized Haar functions approximations. The properties of hybrid functions which are the combinations of blockpulse functions and rationalized Haar functions are first presented. The NewtonCotes nodes and NewtonCotes integration method are then utilized to reduce the nonlinear mixed Hammerstein integral equations to the solutions algebraic equations. The method is computationally attractive, and applications are demonstrated through illustrative examples.
1
A numerical method for solving nonlinear mixed Hammerstein integral equations is presented in this paper. The method is based upon hybrid of rationalized Haar functions approximations. The properties of hybrid functions which are the combinations of blockpulse functions and rationalized Haar functions are first presented. The NewtonCotes nodes and NewtonCotes integration method are then utilized to reduce the nonlinear mixed Hammerstein integral equations to the solutions algebraic equations. The method is computationally attractive, and applications are demonstrated through illustrative examples.
53
57


Y.
Ordokhanii
Iran
Hybrid
Rationalized Haar functions
Blockpulse functions
NewtonCotes
nonlinear
Mixed Hammerstein integral equation
[[1] F. G. Tricomi, "Integral equations, "Dover, 1982. ##[2] L. J. Lardy, "A variation of Nystrom's method for Hammerestein equations," J. Integral Equations, vol. 3, p.p. 123129 , 1982. ##[3] S. Kumar and I. H. Sloan, "A new collocationtype method for Hammerstein integral equations," J. Math. Comp., vol. 48, p.p. 123129, 1987. ##[4] H. Brunner, "Implicitly linear collocation method for nonlinear Volterra equations," J. Appl. Num. Math., vol. 9, p.p. 235247, 1982. ##[5] H. Guoqiang, "Asymptotic error expansion variation of a collocation method for Volterra Hammerstein equations," J. Appl. Num. Math., vol. 13, p.p. 357369, 1993. ##[6] C. H. Hsiao and C. F. Chen," Solving integral equation via Walsh functions," Comput. Elec. Engng., vol. 6, p.p. 279292, 1979. ##[7] C. H. Wang and Y. P. Shih, "Explicit solutions of integral equations via block pulse functions," Int. J. Syst. Sci., vol 13, p.p. 773782, 1982. ##[8] C. Hwang and Y. P. Shih, "Solution of integral equations via Laguerre polynomials," Comp. and Elect. Engng., vol. 9, p.p. 123129, 1982. ##[9] R. Y. Chang and M. L. Wang, "Solutions of integral equations via shifted Legendre polynomials, " Int. J. Syst. Sci., vol 16, p.p. 197208, 1985. ##[10] J. H. Chou and I. R. Horng, "Double shifted chebyshev series for convoluation integral and integral equations," Int. J. Contr., vol. 42, p.p. 225232, 1985. ##[11] M. Razzaghi, M. Razzaghi and A. Arabshahi, "Solution of convolution integral and Fredholm integral equations via double Fourier series, " Appl. Math. Comp., vol. 40, p.p. 215224, 1990. ##[12] M. Razzaghi and J. Nazarzadeh, "Walsh functions," Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 23 , p.p. 429440, 1999. ##[13] K. G. Beauchamp, "Walsh functions and their applications," 1975. ##[14] R. T. Lynch and J. J. Reis, "Haar transform image coding," National Telecommun. Conf., Dallas, TX, 44.3144.3, 1976. ##[15] J. J. Reis and R. T. Lynch and J. Butman, "Adaptive Haar transform video bandwidth reduction system for RPV's," Ann. Meeting Soc. Photo Optic Inst. Eng. (SPIE), San Dieago, CA. p.p. 2435, 1976. ##[16] M. Ohkita and Y. Kobayashi, "An application of rationalized Haar functions to solution of linear differential equations," IEEE Trans, on Circuit and systems, vol. 19, p.p. 853862, 1986. ##[17] M. Ohkita and Y. Kobayashi, "An application of rationalized Haar functions to solution of linear partial differential equations," Mathematics and Computers in Simulations, vol. 30, p.p. 419428, 1988. ##[18] M.Razzaghi and H. Marzban, "A hybrid analysis direct method in the calculus of variations," Intern. J. Computer Math., vol. 75, p.p. 259269, 1999. ##[19] S. Yalcinbas, "Taylor polynomial solution of nonlinear VolterraFredholm integral equations,"Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 127, p.p. 195206, 2002. ##[20] G. M. Phillips and P. J. Taylor, "Theory and Application of Numerical Analysis," Academic Press , New York, 1973. ##[21] M. Razzaghi and Y. Ordokhani, "Solution of nonlinear VolterraHammerstein integral equations via rationalized Haar functions, " Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 7, p.p. 205218, 2001. ##[22] A.M. Wazwaz, "A first course in integral equations," World scientific Publishing Company, New Jersey, 1997. ##[23] M. Razzaghi and Y.Ordokhani, "An application of rationalized Haar functions for variational problems," Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 122, p.p. 353364, 2001. ##[24] G.N. Elnagar, and M. Kazemi, "Chebyshev spectral solution of nonlinear VolterraHammerstein integral equations," J. Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 76, p.p. 147158, 1996.##]
Effect of Alkali and Heat Treatment on Biomimetic HA Coating on Ti6Al4V
Effect of Alkali and Heat Treatment on Biomimetic HA Coating on Ti6Al4V
2
2
In this study, time of calcium phosphate formation on Ti6Al4V alloy with or without alkali and heat treatments was investigated. Specimens were soaked in 0, 5, 10 M solutions of NaOH at temperatures of 60 or 80 °C for 24, 72 h. Their surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and thin film Xray diffraction. It was found that optimum condition is 72h soaking in 5 M NaOH in 80 °C. Specimens treated under these optimum conditions were subsequently heattreated at 500, 600, and 700 °C for 1h in order to consolidate the sodium titanate hydrogel layer. With heat treatment at 600 °C for 1h and then soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), apatite formed within 3 days. But there were no signs of apatite formation in control samples (without alkali and heat treatment) up to 7 days soaking in SBF. So, it was concluded that alkaliheat treatment is an effective way for accelerating apatite formation and the optimum condition is 72 h soaking in 5 M NaOH solution at 80°C and then heat treatment at 600 °C resulted for 1 h.
1
In this study, time of calcium phosphate formation on Ti6Al4V alloy with or without alkali and heat treatments was investigated. Specimens were soaked in 0, 5, 10 M solutions of NaOH at temperatures of 60 or 80 °C for 24, 72 h. Their surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and thin film Xray diffraction. It was found that optimum condition is 72h soaking in 5 M NaOH in 80 °C. Specimens treated under these optimum conditions were subsequently heattreated at 500, 600, and 700 °C for 1h in order to consolidate the sodium titanate hydrogel layer. With heat treatment at 600 °C for 1h and then soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), apatite formed within 3 days. But there were no signs of apatite formation in control samples (without alkali and heat treatment) up to 7 days soaking in SBF. So, it was concluded that alkaliheat treatment is an effective way for accelerating apatite formation and the optimum condition is 72 h soaking in 5 M NaOH solution at 80°C and then heat treatment at 600 °C resulted for 1 h.
59
63


K.
Fatehii
Iran


F.
Moztarzadehii
Iran


M.
Solati Hashtjiniii
Iran
Biomimetic coating
hydroxyapatie
alkali heat treatment
[[1] L.L. Hench, “Bioceramics: from concept to clinic,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc, vol.74, pp. 1487– 1510, 1991. ##[2] A. Ravaglioli, A. Krajewski, “Bioceramics: Materials, Properties, Applications,”Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 46 – 60, 1992. ##[3] M.J. Filaggi, N.A. Coombs, R.M. Pilliar, “Characterization of the interface in the plasmasprayed HA coating/Ti6Al4V implant system,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. vol. 25, pp. 1211– 1219, 1991. ##[4] K. Hayashi, T. Mashima, K. Uenoyama, “The effect of hydroxyapatite coating on bony ingrowth into grooved titanium implants,” Biomaterials, vol. 20, pp. 111 – 119, 1999. ##[5] M. Wei, A.J. Ruys, B.K. Milthorpe, C.C. Sorrell, “Solution ripening of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: effects on electrophoretic deposition,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. vol. 45, pp. 11 – 19, 1999. ##[6] H. Monma, “Electrolytic depositions of calcium phosphates on substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. vol.29, pp. 949– 953, 1994. ##[7] F. Barrere, P. Layrolle, C.A. Van Blitterswijk and K. De. Groot, “Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Ti6Al4V: A Crystal Growth Study of Octacalcium Phosphate and Inhibition by Mg+2 and HCO3,” Bone vol.25, No. 2, pp. 107–111,1999. ##[8] Kokubo, T., Kushitani, H., Abe, Y., and Yamamuro, T. “Apatite coating on various substrates in simulated body fluid,” Bioceramics, vol. 2, pp. 235–242,1989. ##[9] H.M. Kim, F. Miyaji, T. Kokubo, T. Nakamura, “Bonding strength of bonelike apatite layer to Ti metal substrate,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. vol. 38 , pp. 121–127, 1997. ##[10] H.B. Wen, Q. Liu, J.R. de Wijn, K. de Groot, F.Z. Cui, “Preparation of bioactive microporous titanium surface by a new twostep chemical treatment,” J. Mater. Sci. vol. 9, pp. 121– 128, 1998. ##[11] T. Kokubo, “Apatite formation on surfaces of ceramics, metals and polymers in body environment,” Acta Mater. vol. 46, pp. 2519–2527,1998. ##[12] Kim H.M., Kokubo .T, awashita . M.”Novel bioactive materials with different mechanical properties,” Biomaterials,vol. 24, pp. 2161– 2175, 2003. ##[13] Teixeira R.L.P, Godoy G.C.D, Pereira M.M.”Calcium Phosphate Formation on AlkaliTreated Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel,” Materials Research, vol.7, pp. 299303, 2004. ##[14] Yan W.Q , Nakamura T, Kawanabe K, Nishigochi Sh., Oka M, Kokubo T.”Apatite layercoated titanium for use as bone bonding implants,” Biomaterials, vol. 18, pp. 11851190, (1997). ##[15] F. Barrere, M. Snel, C.A.Blitterswijk, K. Groot, P. Layrolle, “Nanoscale study of the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate coating on titanium implants,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, pp. 2901–2910, 2004. ##[16] I. Hofmann, L. Müller, P. Greil, F.A. Müller, “Calcium phosphate nucleation on cellulose fabrics,” Surface & Coatings Technology , vol.201, pp. 2392–2398, 2006.##]
On Infinitesimal Conformal Transformations of the Tangent Bundles with the Generalized Metric
On Infinitesimal Conformal Transformations of the Tangent Bundles with the Generalized Metric
2
2
Let be an ndimensional Riemannian manifold, and be its tangent bundle with the lift metric. Then every infinitesimal fiberpreserving conformal transformation induces an infinitesimal homothetic transformation on . Furthermore, the correspondence gives a homomorphism of the Lie algebra of infinitesimal fiberpreserving conformal transformations on onto the Lie algebra of infinitesimal homothetic transformations on , and the kernel of this homomorphism is naturally isomorphic onto the Lie algebra of infinitesimal isometries of .
1
Let be an ndimensional Riemannian manifold, and be its tangent bundle with the lift metric. Then every infinitesimal fiberpreserving conformal transformation induces an infinitesimal homothetic transformation on . Furthermore, the correspondence gives a homomorphism of the Lie algebra of infinitesimal fiberpreserving conformal transformations on onto the Lie algebra of infinitesimal homothetic transformations on , and the kernel of this homomorphism is naturally isomorphic onto the Lie algebra of infinitesimal isometries of .
65
69


E.
Peyghani
Iran


A.
Tayebiii
Iran
Infinitesimal conformal transformation
homothetic transformation
Lagrange metric
isometry
[[1] M. T. K. Abbassi, Note on the classification theorems of gnatural metrics on the tangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold (M, g), Commnet. Math. Univ. Carolinae, 45 (4) (2004), 591596. ##[2] H. AkbarZadeh, Transformations infinitesimals conformes des varietes finsleriennes compactes, Ann. Polon. Math., 36 (1979), 213229. ##[3] M. Anastasiei, Locally conformal Kaehler structures on tangent manifold of a space form, Libertas Math., 19 (1999), 7176. ##[4] I. Hasegawa and K. Yamauchi, Infinitesimal projective transformations on tangent bundles with lift connection, Scientiae Mathematicae Japonicae 52 (2003), 469483. ##[5] R. Miron, and M. Anastasiei,, The Geometry of Lagrange spaces: Theory and applications, Kluwer Acad. Publ, FTPH, no.59,(1994). ##[6] R. Miron, and M. Anastasiei, Vector bundles and Lagrange spaces with application to Relativity. Geometry Balkan Press, Romania, (1981). ##[7] K. Yamauchi , On infinitesimal conformal transformations of the tangent bundles over Riemannian manifolds, Ann. Rep. Asahikawa. Med. Coll.Vol. 15. 1994. ##[8] K. Yano, The theory of Lie Derivatives and Its Applications, North Holland, (1957). ##[9] K. Yano and S. Ishihara, Tangent and Cotangent Bundles, Marcel Dekker, New York, (1973). ##[10] K. Yano and S. Kobayashi, Prolongations of tensor fields and connection to tangent bundle I, General theory, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 18 (1996), 194 210. ##]